Apple’s history is characterized by many highs and lows and was shaped above all by Steve Jobs – the founder, who was dismissed in the meantime.
Apple was founded on 1 April 1976 by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne.
The distribution started with one of the first computers ever, the “Apple I”. It was sold about 200 times for 666.66 dollars each. After Apple’s transformation into a corporation and some investments, the “Apple II” followed a year later.
After the Apple II became a bestseller, Apple began planning the “Macintosh”, the first computer with a graphical user interface and the first computer mouse as an input device. This appeared in 1984 and was a great success.
In the same year, John Sculley became Apple’s CEO. After a failed coup attempt, Steve Jobs left Apple in 1985.
In 1990, Windows 3.0 was introduced, a competitive software for computers that replaced the Macintosh as the market leader.
Sculley had to resign in 1993 and was replaced by Michael Spindler.
Due to some management errors and technical problems, Apple was on the verge of bankruptcy in 1996.
A year later, Steve Jobs returned to Apple and helped the company out of the crisis. He made a change of strategy and only worked with four models: two notebooks and two personal computers. One of them was the very successful iMac. He also began a partnership with Microsoft.
In the following years, Apple’s success was significantly influenced by the iTunes software for music management and the MP3 player iPod.
In 2007, Apple introduced the first iPhone, laying the foundation for all today’s smartphones. The iPad followed in 2010 and revived the tablet market. These two product lines are now responsible for Apple’s main sales.
Steve Jobs retired in 2011 for health reasons. His successor is Tim Cook, who is still Apple’s CEO today. In the same year, Steve Jobs died of cancer.